Materials List – Water Treatment
Proper control of bacteria in offshore oil and gas applications helps increase efficiency, improve injecting, and worker safety, making biocides an important and necessary component in sustainable oil and gas operations. In order to optimize oil and gas production, microbial control programs are of great importance. To maximize productivity in microbial applications, you need to have the right technology at the various operational stages. One of the major problems caused by the presence of microbes is the microbiological corrosion phenomenon. Microbiology corrosion is one of the most common types of corrosion in the oil and gas installations in the storage and transport section. The best way to reduce or remove bacteria is add pesticides or biocides. In fact, any factor that can reduce or eliminate the thickness of the biofilm can be considered as a deterrent to corrosion. Biosides, as one of the biofilm controllers, can greatly eliminate or weaken these bacteria and thus greatly reduce corrosion. With the help of biocides, the early stages of eliminating bacteria can be eliminated, and in other ways, it eliminates bacteria. Other applications of biocide are:
- Diminish souring
- Prevent of equipment corrosion
- Prevent the formation of biofilm over the time
- Increase efficiency
A corrosion inhibitor is a substance when added in a small concentration to an environment, reduces the corrosion rate of a metal exposed to that environment. Inhibitors often play an important role in the oil extraction and processing industries where they have always been considered to be the first line of defiance against corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors, prevent damage to materials and equipment, create a thin layer of protective membranes on the surface of the material. The first Studies about Corrosion Inhibitors focused only on the hydrophilic phase, but new researches focused on the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors in the crude oil phase. Although corrosion inhibitors are categorized into two groups including organic and inorganic compounds based on the nature of the ingredients, but other categories are proposed for these materials. For example, based on the performance mechanism, corrosion inhibitors are categorized into three cathodic, anodic and cathodic-anodic mixtures. Based on the system used, corrosion inhibitors were divided into three groups including water-soluble, oil-soluble, and three-phase corrosion inhibitors. The most important factor in the performance of corrosion inhibitors is the pH of the environment. Keeping pH in a constant amount in various gas systems by using of glycol, is a mechanism that is used in Iran to prevent corrosion.
Flocculation and Coagulation treatment chemicals are used in effluent water treatment processes for solids removal, water clarification, lime softening, and sludge thickening. Impurities in groundwater and surface water include dissolved particles and suspensions. The chlorine ponds are used to separate these substances from the water. Clarifiers are tanks made with mechanical tools that are used for continuous removal of precipitated particles resulting from filtration. Coagulants and flocculants are used in these ponds. Polyacrylamide flocculant or polycarbonate is a chemical substance that accelerates the process of separating solid particles from the liquid and facilitates the process of purifying the wastewater and obtaining clear water. Suspensions differ from source, charge, particle size, shape, and density. The correct use of coagulant and flocculant agents is dependent on the correct knowledge of suspended particle specification. Flocculants are used not only in the water purification industry, but also in the solid-liquid separation industry, including the processes of deposition, water treatment, condensation and dehydration, including:
- Mining industry: use in the processing of mining and construction gems drilling and mining
- Paper industry: Use as a fiber reinforcement and drying agent
- Paint and leather industry: Use as a sedimentation agent
- Agricultural industry: Use as a soil stabilizer to prevent erosion
Oxygen Scavenger is used for as a reducing agent for removal of dissolved oxygen to prevent internal oxygen corrosion in brackish water handling equipment at crude oil desalting system. It can also be used to arrest oxygen in seawater.
The presence of dissolved oxygen causes corrosion in oil equipment. Oxygenators are chemicals.
Which reacts with fluid-reactive oxygen to eliminate or reduce the amount of oxygen-related corrosion. Sulfite (SO3-2) or biosulfate (HSO3-2) with oxygen during a reactive oxidation-reduction process, and in the presence of nickel catalysts and cobalt sulfate (SO4-2). This prevents corrosion caused by oxygen. One of the important things to reduce the amount of dissolved oxygen before using the absorbent is to remove the air in the path of dehumidification and mechanical agitation. Oxygen detergents are yellow buffers and water alkaline reducers that are stored in the container to prevent direct sunlight. Sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and hydrazine (N2H4) are commonly used as ozone depleting substances, which are commonly used as oxygenates in catalytic systems to remove oxygen at low temperatures and pressures. Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) is also widely used as oxygenate. Among the advantages of using this material are:
- High efficiency in oxygen removal
- Need a small amount
- Low toxicity
- High reactivity with oxygen