Materials List – Water and Wastewater
Chemical factors, preventing the process of damage to the material is their duty, creates a narrow protective membrane on the surface of the materials. Corrosion inhibitors are both inorganic and organic compounds. We can divide inhibitors by mechanism of action in 3 groups: cathodic, anodic and mixed cathodic-anodic. Environment PH is so important in their operation efficient. Another grouping for inhibitors according to their chemical nature are imidazoline, heterocyclic compounds which have one N, amines and ammonium salts, quaternary ammonium salts. Using of hydrophobic corrosion inhibitors is preferred by oil and gas industry.
Based on the using system, inhibitor divided in 3 group: soluble in water, soluble in oil and three-phase corrosion inhibitor. Vital point needed more attention in every step of oil and gas production is a prevention of corrosion. An important point for protecting internal corrosion of oilfield pipelines is appropriate corrosion inhibitors selection. Most of the corrosion difficulties in refineries happen because of inorganic materials like water, CO2, sulfuric acid, H2S, and sodium chloride. Corrosion engineers say corrosion is the result of being together water and steel. Oil and gas pipelines are widely created by carbon steel. Carbon steel near water, created raw oil or natural gas from underground reservoirs, corrodes.
Earlier corrosion inhibitor research just focused on the water phase but new research study about the crude oil phase on the corrosion inhibitors efficiency.
Stabilizing the PH in different gas systems is the way used in Iran in South Pars. The base of this way is using glycol. Iran can produce the inhibitors grouped based on systems.
An additive for bacteria killing or decreasing their growth. For protecting oil and gas operations we need a program for controlling the microbial effects. Bacteria grows wherever water exists. In hydrocarbon production and processes use a large heavy volume of water that can create a wonderful place for bacteria growth. Their presence effects the quality and quantity of productions and the operation safety. The hydraulic fracturing and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) use more water and we should have a special biocide treatment programs for decreasing the danger of bacterial pollution creation.
Programs for microbial controlling is so important to optimize oil and gas productions. To receive the maximum efficiency of microbial controlling programs, the usage of best technology in the different operation steps:
- Produced water and oilfield waters can have bacteria needed treatment. With biocides, an initial decrease of bacteria can happen and then help to eliminate assets corrosion, diminish souring, and increase the efficiency of biocides added in later process steps.
- Initial control downhole will be provided by adding an effective biocide in injection water and hydraulic breaking liquid.
- To prevent souring, assets corrosion and biofilm formation during a time, usage of biocides with effective remaining in high temperature, pressure, and brininess situations for a longer time is important.
A scatter colloid system like bole be coagulated and formed flocs by a chemical material which named flocculent. Flocculants can be in 2 forms, either multivalent cations like Ca, Mn and Al, or polymers with a long chain. Other situation, that can be a reason of bole flocculation, are high temperature, PH, and brininess.
The most popular way for de-gumming occurred by hydration, especially if the precipitate is separated and is traded as a lecithin. phosphatides, proteins, and some other colloidal impurities, which are either dissolved in the oil in very fine colloidal dispersion as long as they are anhydrous and the oil is dry, swell when wetted or hydrated and form gels of higher specific gravity, separate from the oil in flocculent particles and, if the oil is left quiescent, gradually sink to the bottom of the vessel.
In another usage, in a system with a heater which warms polluted input hydrocarbon to receive to a procedure temperature. Inducing voltage of electron applied by an ionizer to the warm hydrocarbon and in continuation, flocculent supply provides a charged flocculent into the ionized hydrocarbon. At the end of this procedure, for producing solid waste and oil, the hydrocarbon should be cleaned from all the flocculent and pollutant by a separator.
Dissolved oxygen make corrosion in oil manufacturing for removing this problem or decrease it, oil manufacturing uses Oxygen scavengers. The formulation of Oxygen scavengers is sulphite or bisulphite, and the reaction of it and oxygen has a product which is sulphate which is grouped in redox categories and its catalysts is Ni and Co. To reduce the soluble oxygen quantity before scavenger usage, the most important and necessary point is removing air in the way of defoaming and mechanical deaeration.
Oxygen Scavenger, a distributer used to prevent seawater oxygen. An inorganic chemical and active bisulfate solution composition which is a yellow buffer and water alkalinity reduction is better to store in closed device for preserving it from straight sunlight and its properties are oxidation corrosion-minimizing, oxygen omitting, PH buffering, energy saving and bio gradable.