Sodium bicarbonate or baking soda is one of the salts of sodium in combination with carbonic acid, of which only one acidic hydrogen has been replaced by sodium. The molecular formula of sodium bicarbonate is NaHCO3. This substance, which is also known as baking soda in the food grade, is also known in the industry by other names such as sodium hydrogen carbonate, cooked soda, sodium carbonic acid, monosodium salt, monosodium carbonate, and sodium acid carbonate. Sodium bicarbonate in solid form, in the form of granules or crystalline powders, white, odorless, has a base property and is slightly soluble and slightly soluble in ethanol. Bicarbonate absorbs moisture and evaporates.

Sodium bicarbonate has in its structure an anionic group -HCO3 and a cationic agent + Na. Sodium bicarbonate is found in nature in the form of the mineral nahcolite. In 1791, the French chemist Nicholas developed the sodium bicarbonate dressing in its modern form. John Dwight and Austin Church built the first baking soda factory from sodium bicarbonate and carbon dioxide. Today, this product is mostly prepared by a process between sodium chloride, ammonia and carbon dioxide and water, which is called the solvay process, in which sodium bicarbonate is obtained by precipitation and after drying Sodium carbonate is formed by heating.

Figure (1) shows how sodium bicarbonate consumption will be distributed in 2019 in different industries.

Fig (1): Sodium Bicarbonate consumption will be distributed in 2019 in different industries


Applications of sodium bicarbonate

  • Drilling: Sodium bicarbonate is used in drilling to remove calcium impurities left in cement.
  • Medicine: It is widely prescribed by doctors to treat heartburn and acidity of the stomach.
  • Water Treatment: Sodium bicarbonate is a powerful factor in controlling pH, alkalinity and purification processes.
  • Agriculture: Used to provide healthy growing conditions and not allow unnecessary growth of fungi.
  • Home applications: This combination can be used to eliminate various odors.
  • Food industry: The most common use of sodium bicarbonate is in the processing of baking powders.
  • Industrials: The abrasive properties of this material act like a mechanical cleaner and remove plaque from the teeth and help whiten teeth.
  • Industrial applications: As industrial applications, NaHCO3 buffers in various processes neutralize the pH and are a source of CO2 and also play the role of catalyst.

It is a very weak base that is soluble in water and is converted to sodium (Na) and bicarbonate (HCO3) ions in water.