Enhanced Oil Recovery by Using Nano-Particle
Since most of the country’s reservoirs are in the second half of their life and the longer it is, the more difficult it is to harvest, according to the conditions of the reservoir. It is necessary to improve it more and more, but we should not forget that the best practical and economic method should be selected from among the various methods. The basic condition for proper use of overharvesting is complete control over the forces in the well and the factors that interfere with extraction.
In general, inside each tank, three forces affect how the fluid moves in the porous medium and thus the amount of oil recycled. These forces are:
- Viscous force
- Capillary force and continuity
After identifying and fully mastering the forces entering the fluid inside the tanks, mastering the conditions of the desired tanks is also essential. The results of previous studies show that the use of nanoparticles is an effective method in increasing harvests from oil and gas wells. In this research, in order to increase the extraction from oil and gas resources, feasibility studies and studies related to nanoscale particles as well as nanotechnology, which is one of the modern sciences, have been studied.
The unique properties of nanoparticles have created great potential in hydrocarbon reservoir applications. Due to the importance of the subject, the purpose of this study is to investigate the various parameters on the motion and transport of nanoparticles and to provide suggestions for improving oil recycling. Above figure shows a rough view of the Enhanced Oil Recovery process using nanoparticle injection.
A large part of the world’s oil resources, which are the most important source of human energy, are heavy oils. Due to the lower natural production capacity of heavy oil tanks than light oil tanks, production from heavy oil tanks is generally done using thermal methods. On the other hand, nanotechnology in overharvesting processes has been considered by many researchers in recent years. Nanofluids are used to increase the thermal conductivity by dispersing nanometer particles in the tank. However, the preparation of nanofluids is done in various ways, including the use of surfactant as a heat transfer stabilizing agent. In the following, some examples of research related to the use of different nanoparticles in Enhanced Oil Recovery are reviewed. Figure (1) shows the mechanism of action of overharvesting by injection of nanoparticles.
Figure (1): Nanoparticle injection performance mechanism by nanoparticles
In the research presented by Koval et al., four different types of surfactants were used to prepare nanofluids and the performance of surfactants in increasing the thermal conductivity of reservoir rock after injection of nanofluids into the core was investigated. The results of this study show that the nanofluid of copper oxide stabilized with ionic liquid had the highest thermal conductivity and the nanofluid of copper oxide stabilized with PVP had the lowest increase of thermal conductivity. Therefore, the use of ion liquid-stabilized copper oxide nanofluids will have the highest efficiency among nanoparticles used in overharvesting.
A study by Liu et al. examines the many efforts that are currently being made to use nanoparticles for Enhanced Oil Recovery purposes. In this study, previous studies have been performed on the transfer of nanoparticles in porous media in surface alluvial and sandstone areas that do not cover all the conditions for the oil substrate. Problems related to how these materials are transported and distributed in the porous medium are also discussed as the main remaining challenges. In this study, first, the mechanism governing the transfer and storage for the following three metal nano-oxides in limestone and quartz porous medium is investigated:
Then, in this research, the mentioned nanoparticles have been used for the purpose of increasing the harvest in these porous media. The slit curve of the effluent columns is measured with a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The results showed that the mobility of nanoparticles through the mentioned porous medium is strongly dependent on the surface charge of nanoparticles and its stability, as well as the surface charge of the porous medium and its hardness. Figure (2) shows the mechanism of action of nanoparticles used by these researchers to reduce the surface tensile force between oil particles and the well wall to increase harvest.
Fig (2): Nanoparticle operation mechanism to reduce the surface tensile force
between oil particles and well wall
The results of research conducted by Patzele et al. show that nanotechnology can play a major role in improving the exploitation process by helping to find hydrocarbon sources more accurately and in more detail using advanced seismic and magnetic methods. In this research, first the characteristics of applications and methods of exploration of oil and gas resources and the problems ahead are discussed and then the introduction and overview of the network of intelligent sensors to express the effects and application of nanotechnology in the development of systems and sensors. Pipes have been proposed as a powerful and suitable tool for designing and manufacturing various types of sensors, especially mechanical and chemical sensors, and the possibility of their wide and effective application in special fields of the oil industry.
According to a study by Schramm et al., global energy demand will double in the next 50 years. Therefore, the need to use new technologies and a kind of review of the type of production and consumption of energy resources is strongly felt. Meanwhile, nanotechnology with a new approach to the structure and arrangement of materials, has created very good methods to use different processes in the field of energy. The results of this study show that in fact nanotechnology can play a major role by helping to find hydrocarbon sources more accurately and in more detail, especially at deeper distances, as well as measuring the dimensions of the reservoir using advanced seismic and magnetic methods. Play in improving the process of operation and production of fluid from wells.
In a study conducted by Bournival et al., the simulation of nanoparticles and surfactants in Enhanced Oil Recovery has been investigated and a method for changing wettability from petroleum to hydrophilicity and reducing surface tension has been investigated using surfactants and different concentrations of nanoparticles used in this study. The continuity equation in slotted reservoirs has been investigated and also simulations of oil extraction methods by gravity shedding method have been investigated. Placed.
In a study by Bilerman et al., the use of nanoparticles along with water injection into oil tanks has been investigated. The results of this study show that nanoparticles by changing the wettability of the reservoir rock by reducing the surface tension cause the oil to be trapped in the reservoir rock and extract more oil. In this study, by performing water injection experiments, the flow rate of the produced oil was measured and then by injection of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with different concentrations and specific porosity, the flow rate and recovery percentage of the produced oil were measured. The results of experiments and studies show that the injection of titanium dioxide nanoparticles reduces the surface tension between the oil and the bedrock and causes the oil to separate from the reservoir rock, which improves the oil recovery from the reservoir. The highest percentage of oil recovery in this study is 43%.
In a study conducted by Lindman et al., the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on Enhanced Oil Recovery from oil reservoirs by water flooding method was investigated. In this research, the effect of adding different amounts of TiO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. The results of this study show that TiO2 nanoparticles with different concentrations improve the extraction of oil from the tank and at a concentration of 250 ppm, the maximum amount of extraction of oil has been achieved and the amount of oil extraction has reached 51%.
In a study by Grigg et al., selecting the appropriate method of Enhanced Oil Recovery can increase oil production, each of which affects the forces that are effective in over-harvesting. Replacing nanofluids as an Enhanced Oil Recovery agent instead of traditional methods increases oil production and Enhanced Oil Recovery efficiency. In this study, experiments on hydrophilic sandstone core with porosity between 10 and 20% using nano-silica and polysilicon nanoparticles have been investigated and several samples of Iranian reservoirs with similar material, porosity and permeability with tested samples, introduced as opportunities to use this technology. Figure (3) shows the mechanism of action of nanoparticles used by these researchers in surrounding oil droplets and helping them move in the well.
Fig (3): Mechanism of action of nanoparticles in surrounding oil droplets and
helping them to move in the well
In a study conducted by Adkins et al., the relationship between nanofluids and oil recovery has been investigated. The results of this study show that nanoparticles can increase oil recovery by changing the wettability. In this study, the simultaneous effect of nanoparticles with dilute brine was investigated. The results of core flooding experiments show that Ca2 + ion increases oil recovery without the presence of nanoparticles and has the greatest effect on the amount of oil recovery among water-soluble ions. Also, SiO2 nanoparticles in the presence of water-soluble Ca2 + ions increase oil recovery more than Ca2 + ions alone.
In a study conducted by Espinoza et al., the mobility of SiO₂, TiO₂, Al₂O₃ nanoparticles is strongly dependent on the surface charge of nanoparticles and their stability, surface load of porous medium and its roughness. Therefore, nanoparticles that are more stable against sedimentation and deposition and the surface charge is also marked with a porous medium can move easily, while if the surface charge mark of the nanoparticles and the porous medium is opposite, it leads to significant absorption of these particles. The surface becomes. The greater the mobility of the nanoparticles as they pass through the porous medium, the greater the oil recovery. At the end of this research, it has been determined that before using nanoparticles with the aim of increasing their harvest, their movement and preservation in a porous medium should be evaluated.
In a study conducted by Forhad et al. in a laboratory study on the injection of copper oxide nanoparticles, the mechanism of oil flow in tanks with horizontal gaps was investigated. The results of this study show that the highest amount of oil produced under optimal conditions is related to copper oxide nanoparticles with a concentration of 5 ppm. 66% of oil recycling was achieved.
In a study conducted by Binks et al., the process of pyrolysis and low temperature oxidation at 210 با temperature was used using nanoparticle cell oil and then the rheology and viscosity of each sample were investigated. The results of this study show that the use of nano-iron oxide in oxygen environment increases the viscosity of oil up to about 2 times in 10 days and also this nano has the most changes in viscosity compared to oil without nano-particles.
In a study conducted by Hozorov et al., the effect of using nanoparticles on hydrogels used in drilling mud on the increase of extraction from oil reservoirs has been studied. In this study, swelling tests were performed on hydrogels made with different amounts of clay nanoparticles in two solutions of salt water and pure water. The results of this study show that in adsorption of pure water and consequently adsorption of water more than tanks, nanocomposite hydrogels containing 2% of clay have the highest adsorption and about twice as much as hydrogels without clay nanoparticles, the ability to adsorb has it.
In a study conducted by Hozorov et al., the effect of adding silica nanoparticles to alkaline sodium hydroxide solution and also its effect on the process of increasing heavy oil extraction were investigated. The results of injection in the micro model show that silica nanoparticles by increasing the wettability of the environment from petroleum to hydrophilic and reducing the thickness of the oil layer on the wall increases oil recovery and adding 0.0125 and 0.05% by weight of silica nanoparticles to solution 5 0.0% by weight of alkaline increases oil recycling by 14.28% and 17.54% compared to water flooding, respectively.
In the study conducted by Zhang et al., radical copolymerization of reverse iodine transfer of vinyl acetate and dibutyl maleate in the presence of iodine molecule as the transfer agent and isobutyronitrel as the initiator at 70 ° C was used to increase harvest. The results of this study show that the copolymerization of these monomers proceeds with controlled characteristics. In this study, copolymerization was performed in the presence of clay nanoparticles. The results show that due to the interaction between the active groups on the surface of nano-clay and iodine, with increasing iodine ratio, the polymerization rate increases and the molecular weight distribution becomes narrower. Also, increasing the clay ratio reduces the polymerization rate and limits the molecular weight and conversion percentage of the reaction.
The results of a study conducted by Ma et al. show that heavy oil reservoirs constitute a significant part of the world’s oil resources and, in these reservoirs, due to the high viscosity of oil in them, only a small percentage of oil can be extracted instead. In order to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil and increase the extraction coefficient of such reservoirs, new methods and technologies must be used. On the other hand, nanotechnology is growing rapidly and has affected almost all sciences and industries, and in this field, it can Be path-breaking. In this research, copper oxide metal nanoparticles have been used to increase the thermal conductivity of supercritical carbon dioxide as a base fluid for injection into heavy oil and thus reduce the viscosity of oil.