Ammonia is one of the most widely used mineral chemicals in the world with an annual production of about 175 million tons. The main producers of ammonia are China and Russia. Ammonia is produced by Haber-Bosch process, coal distillation or decomposition of ammonium salts. Ammonia is sold on an industrial scale either as a 28% solution in water or as a liquid under pressure without water.


Density (at a pressure of 1 atmosphere)0.86 kg/m3
Solubility 47% w/w (0 °C)
31% w/w (25 °C)
18% w/w (50 °C)
Appearancecolorless gas or liquid


  • Fertilizer
  • Pioneer of nitrogen compounds
  • Antimicrobial agent for food industry
  • Surface cleaner
  • fuel
  • Textile Industry
  • Cooler
  • Solvent (liquid phase)


Ammonia must be stored in steel cylinders and transported by special tankers.

Chemical Formula

  • NH3

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